Historians of science are schooled to look for continuity, but Hacking framed his problem in terms of discontinuity. If all who were entitled to government benefits claimed them, they argued, the system would buckle, exposing the magnitude of American poverty and the inadequacy of its safety net. Those negative connotations deepen in the 18th century. Among his most cited early works is the two-part "What Do Bosses Do? Bob Edwards: Hello, I'm Bob Edwards with an AARP Take on Today. Technical improvements strengthened the relationship between the notions of mechanical and calculation. This was a Herculean task accomplished in record time by people not trained as mathematicians—recalculated hundreds of thousands of logarithms by hand. Jurists, without having any kind of measurable scale, had already assigned fractions to these so-called indices of proof. Select this result to view Jack P Gross's phone number, address, and more. The motivating question of the project was to understand how rules that intentionally involved judgment and adjustment to particular cases gave way to an understanding of rules as rigid, mechanical, and universally applicable. Select this result to view Jackie Gross's phone number, address, and more. There’s not a machine in sight. The word mechanical begins also to denote the kind of person who does that work. Jack has 5 jobs listed on their profile. He was born September 9, 1959 in Farmington a son of Alvin and Constance Marie (Benjamin) Gross. It’s really important to distinguish between these two groups of people, because they are performing two very different tasks. Jack Gross Research Writer and Editor Jack Gross is a writer, editor and researcher. In their 2018 paper POTs: Protective Optimization Technologies (updated version soon forthcoming at this same link), authors Rebekah Overdorf, Bogdan Kulynych, Ero Balsa, Carmela Troncoso, and Seda Gürses offer some answers. Paul Gross is a Canadian producer, singer, director, writer and an actor most known for his role as Constable Benton Fraser in the TV series, Due South. jg: It seems that there’s a thread that ties together calculation, Cold War rationality, and mathematical probability, which is the rationalization and formalization of various aspects of human judgment. That’s because of an ancient philosophical and still unsolved problem: no universal can foresee all the particulars that it will encounter. Despite 13 consecutive years of top performance reviews, Jack Gross was suddenly demoted by his employer FBL Financial Group. These claims in Hacking’s book continue to grip me. (Harvard College Observatory). Her two books—which deal, respectively, with New York City's 1970s fiscal crisis and the rise of conservative business movement—also offer cautionary tales about the severe constraints under which political officials operate, and the ease with which powerful reactionary interests organize, relative to the public interest. Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science since 1995 (emeritus as of Spring 2019), she is the author and co-author of over a dozen books, each stunning in scope and detail, and each demonstrating an ability to make the common uncommon—to illuminate what she calls the “history of the self-evident.”. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/80526148/marcus-frank-gross They are meant to be tweaked in the face of experience, adjusted to specific circumstances. Lorraine Daston has published widely in the history of science, including on probability and statistics, scientific objectivity and observation, game theory, monsters, and much else. We publish research, analysis, and commentary from JFI staff and fellows, as well as from external researchers and writers. Already in the 18th century at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, forms had been developed that divided the task of a complex calculation into small enough steps—so that, at least at the lower end, the Observatory could employ very cheap schoolboy labor in order to complete them economically. This holds through all of your projects—from probability to observation to objectivity. The rank-and-file membership of the NWRO grew dramatically through the late-60s, reaching over 20,000 dues paying members and 540 grassroots groups by the end of the decade, and gaining influence over national welfare politics. The histories are in many ways rightfully triumphal—there has clearly been extraordinary technological advance from the clumsy machines of the 17th century to today—but it’s always been the case that effective functioning has been dependent on high-level judgment, often performed by those on the low end of the hierarchical division of labor. It is startling to see how consistent these interests are across my work. Norman Alden (born Norman Adelberg, September 13, 1924 – July 27, 2012) was an American character actor who performed in television programs and motion pictures.He first appeared on television on The 20th Century Fox Hour in 1957.He provided the … One Jeanswear Group LLC is located in New York, NY, United States and is part of the Women's Clothing Manufacturing Industry. The buyer and seller are betting on whether the commodities in question will be more or less expensive than they are now. At least in his telling, that was the insight that led him to the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine. The first stems from a much ridiculed doctrine of the arithmetic of proof, highly developed in 16th-century legal and casualist thinking, in which the testimony of different witnesses and different kinds of evidence are assigned different weights. To get at that, we have to tell a history not only of emergence, but of the formation of the deepest levels of our intuition. Cloward and Piven published the article in the midst of an intense period of grassroots activity among welfare recipients. They have also lived in Reynoldsburg, OH and Worthington, OH. The obvious one is the eruption of intellectual novelty, so fascinatingly presented in Hacking’s work. Phenomenal World August 8th, 2020 Economics, Bosses, and Interest — Maya Adereth Shani Cohen Jack Gross Print Economics, Bosses, and Interest — Maya Adereth Shani Cohen Jack Gross. Aleatory contracts opened a loophole in these prohibitions: taking a risk was considered to be a form of work that entitles the risk-taker (for example, someone who lent a merchant money for a long voyage) to collect interest on an investment. ld: History of science lies in the middle of a triangle defined by the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. There are some perils to this approach: no universal ever fits the particulars. Phenomenal World is a publication managed by staff of the Jain Family Institute. In his telling, mathematical probability hit with the suddenness of a thunderbolt. Jackie is related to Dorothy J Gross and Arthur L Gross as well as 3 additional people. Read Full Summary jg: The continuity I was after was between people who work under similar labor conditions as content moderators—often low-wage workers in the Global South, contracted to large American tech firms—but who are performing tasks more closely akin to those of calculators: they are the machine behind the machine, tagging images for computer vision programs and the like. POTs—the analytical framework and the technology—suggest that the inevitable assumptions, flaws, and rote nature of optimization systems can be exploited to produce “solutions that enable optimization subjects to defend from unwanted consequences.” Despite their overbearing nature, optimization systems typically require some degree of user input; POTs uses this as a wedge for individuals and groups marginalized by the optimization system to influence its operation. Jack Gross: Regulating the Poor develops a theoretical framework for the function of welfare in the United States—how did you develop this approach to American welfare, and how did you … Over the course of the 19th century, schoolboys were increasingly replaced by women as the cheapest and most reliable form of labor. ld: Originally, in ancient Rome, the term “mechanical” referred to simple machines like a pulley or a lever, but, by the Middle Ages, it had already developed derogatory associations. He has a creative mind and is often off in an alternate universe fighting an epic battle or inventing new characters. We spoke over the phone to discuss the labor of calculation, the various emergences of formal rationality, and the importance of interdisciplinarity in the social sciences. We can read interesting correspondences from astronomers at Oxford and Harvard recruiting the first generation of women college graduates to perform calculations for half the wages of men. Harvard Computers, circa 1890. Sign up for the JFI Letter, a weekly digest of compelling research across the social sciences. We also found 12 background checks for Jack Gross, including criminal records. This is a form of reasoning which is quite familiar to us, even if its quantification by an arithmetic of proof now seems strange: weighing and combining strong evidence with weak evidence in order to come to a reasoned judgment. Some very early textbooks, like Condorcet’s textbooks for the Écoles Centrales, were suffused with the view that grasping fundamental mathematical concepts could serve as a model for political decisions: it would teach future citizens what a clear and distinct idea is—and thereby inoculate them against political demagoguery. This interview was originally published in the, Classical Probability in the Enlightenment. There’s nothing epistemologically inevitable about it—quite the contrary. jg: There seems to be a tension between the idea that mathematical probability can encourage the development of sovereign reasoning and the notion that we need to quantify and formalize the faculty of judgment. Small Wonder (TV Series 1985–1989) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. ld: If you look at the details of, for example, the British Nautical Almanac, you can see that there have always been people like the moderators who are tasked with cleaning up—people behind the scenes checking and proofreading calculations, and identifying where things go wrong. VARIED NET The politics of welfare in the 21st century. Never in the history of human rulemaking have we created a rule or a law that did not stub its toe against unanticipated particulars (just ask the Facebook moderators who must clean up after the algorithms). Even in the most ideal conditions, optimization systems—constrained, more often than not, by the imperatives of profit-generating corporations—are designed to ruthlessly maximize one metric at the expense of others. That really changes over the course of the 20th century. To use an example from the social sciences: if you are looking for causal mechanisms, often only a detailed ethnography will reveal what exactly is the cause of some observed pattern in behavior. For most of their extremely long history, rules have been formulated to allow a great deal of suppleness in their application. Kim Phillips-Fein is an associate professor of history at New York University and the author of the books Invisible Hands: the Businessmen’s Crusade Against the New Deal and Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics, as well as the editor and co-editor of several collections in political economy, business history, and labor history. And it can work in the other direction—a hypothesis developed from ethnographic work may require statistical testing. They have also lived in Brooklyn, NY Jack is related to Lisa H Gross and Gross Paul as well as 1 additional person. They have also lived in Hays, KS and Dodge City, KS. This was crucial to the Enlightenment project. Amidst the ever expanding reach of all varieties of quantification and algorithmic formalization, both the earliest of Daston's works (the 1988 book Classical Probability in the Enlightenment) and her most recent (an ongoing project on the history of rules) perform this task, uncovering the contingencies that swirled around the invention of mathematical probability, and the rise of algorithmic rule-making. Jack is related to Richard P Gross and Timothy Gross as well as 3 additional people. jg: There’s a striking phrase that you use to describe their goals, which is that they “were seeking to quantify the intuitions of an elite of reasonable men.” They were thinking about formalizing legal concepts for business activities, and about how to rationalize certain aspects of the justice system, but they were also seeking to quantify their own cognitive capacities as “reasonable” people. I think it’s striking, if you take the longue durée view of the evolution of the sciences, to recall where these divisions of knowledge we take for granted come from. The essay elaborates what has since been dubbed the "Cloward-Piven Strategy": the mass enrollment of the poor onto welfare rolls. In the former, income redistribution increases employment and productivity, and in the latter it does not. Further Reading. How do you see the history of science in relation to the social sciences more broadly? In so doing, POTs find a way to restore what optimization seeks to hide, revealing that what gets laundered as technical problems are actually political ones. Divisions of labor between workers, managers, and bosses do not, Marglin argued, serve increases in productivity and material prosperity, but rather the consolidation of wealth and power. The second aspect of legal theory that underpinned early formulations of mathematical probability was the so-called aleatory contract, which depends on an uncertain future outcome. But this leads to another, perhaps less obvious question: How does the once-unthinkable become not only thinkable but self-evident? That same year, anti-poverty groups around the country formed a broad coalition that became the National Welfare Rights Organization, of which Piven was a founding member. This interview was originally published in the Los Angeles Review of Books. Why not just follow their lead? Like someone who lives in a flight path but has never bought a plane ticket complaining about the noise to an airline company, the collateral damage of optimization has little leverage over the system provider unless the law can be wielded against it. Director at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science since 1995 (emeritus as of Spring 2019), she is the author and co-author of over a dozen books, each stunning in scope and detail, and each demonstrating of her ability to make the common uncommon—to illuminate what she calls the “history of the self-evident.”. We see a hierarchy of intellectual faculties, in which those forms of human activity that are allegedly mindless are described as “merely mechanical,” even if no machines are involved. How did you become interested in probability, and specifically in the story of quantification? 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