First, it’s important to clarify that we’re trying to determine the number of extant chorale settings. It is important to know how these 192 chorales have survived to understand why this is. Bach closes Cantata 27 (from October 1726) with a setting taken directly from the, Bach closes Cantata 43 (from May 1726) with a setting taken directly from the. All of these happenings found their basis in the Word of God and the Teachings of Martin Luther. Classical, Clasica Phillip M. Hash Winchester Old Lutheran Chorales 2 3 4 5 Flute/Picc. The typical four-part setting of a chorale, in which the sopranos (and the congregation) sing the melody along with three lower voices, is known as a chorale harmonization. In other words, for how many of these 420 chorales do we have in either Bach’s own hand or in the hand of one of his Leipzig copyists? Luther was not only the founder and guiding spirit of the Protestant Reformation, he was a poet of genius and, as a composer (or at least a melodist), remarkably imaginative, versatile, and effective. Today, 371 of The eight other settings that feature melodies attributed, to varying levels of confidence, to Bach himself, are BWVs 248.42, 299, 315, 345, 357, 384, 400, and 1122. -congregational-chorales. Certainly this cantata employs the most famous of all Lutheran chorales, “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (A might fortress is our God), a chorale written by Luther himself. One of the first composers to write chorale preludes was Samuel Scheidt. He included them in his church cantatas, typically as the closing chorale. However, if we were to pursue the question of authenticity to its fullest extent, other factors are worth considering. Bach took considerable editorial liberties, perhaps for the purpose of enhancing his late father’s legacy. Max Reger: 52 easy preludes for the most common Lutheran chorales op. College courses in religion and music history broadened my knowledge of the mass as a liturgical structure and as the basis for extended musical form, but my viewpoint remained pretty parochial. This is a four–part adaptation of a three–part setting by Pachelbel. , Scholarship regarding Lutheran chorales intensified from the 19th century. true. But even all of these 192 do not attain a consistent level of authenticity. – Martin Luther Chorales jetzt kaufen. This figure includes six of the nine duplicates mentioned in point 1) above, as well as points 2), 4), 5), 8) and 9). Bach’s forerunners thus provided a framework for the chorale that was established in the lifeblood of every Lutheran composer by the time of Bach’s appearance on the scene in 1685.  For example, he fitted the melody of the hymn "Veni redemptor gentium" to three different texts, "Verleih uns Frieden gnädiglich", "Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort", and "Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland". These two deficiencies are especially unfortunate in regard to the 49 Dietel chorales that originally came either from larger choral works that are no longer extant or from other hypothetical didactic sources. Though some were original, many of the melodies were taken from popular Lutheran church hymns, secular folk songs, and Gregorian sources. SING and SIGN Choir and Orchestra. Amazon.de/musik: Mehl, Maurice, Bach, J.S. One thing is for certain: the answer is not 371 or 389. OR 2. These "improvements" are clearly shown in a comparison of Breitkopf settings against their appearances in Bach’s original manuscripts. Bach Society Houston, Bach Cantata Vespers Choir of Grace Lutheran, The Bach Choir of Bethlehem, Emmanuel Music Boston, Bach Cantata Choir Portland 8.00–9.30 pm / Lecture-recital »for the amusement of the mind« Mahan Esfahani (harpsichord) 9.30–10.30 pm / Bach – Listen with your eyes – POSTPONED! Bewertung, Martin Luther Chorales. Bach in three early manuscripts, including the newly rediscovered Fasch manuscript (SA 818). Eliminate these and the number of entirely unique settings that came directly from Bach’s pen (or from the pen of one of his personal copyists) is only 214! 2 and B–Bc 16083 MSM. BACH AND THE LUTHERAN UNDERSTANDING OF MUSIC 23 But Luther's statements about music are not confine locus d to the on music in th Tischredene but are found scattered throughout the volume under variou loci,s therefore demonstrating that for Luther the closeness of music to theology was not just a clever thing to say but was essential to his theological methodology. For the literary genre, see, Hymnody of continental Europe § Reformation, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Der Evangelische Kirchengesang im ersten Jahrhunderte der Kirchenverbesserung, Der Evangelische Kirchengesang im siebzehnten Jahrhunderte, Der Evangelische Kirchengesang im achtzehnten Jahrhunderte, Die Melodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlieder, Die siebenzeiligen und jambischen achtzeiligen Melodien, Die Melodien von den achtzeiligen trochäischen bis zu den zehnzeiligen inkl. This is arguably the best known of Bach’s cantatas (fans of Cantata 140, Wachet auf might disagree, but it would certainly be a close contest). With these deficiencies in mind, one could well argue that those of the 192 individual chorales that appear in the Dietel collection attain a slightly higher level of authenticity A) given that the level of certainty that Dietel copied these directly from original manuscripts, and B) given that C. P. E. Bach took such editorial liberties with the settings. Bach in the newly rediscovered Fasch manuscript (SA 818). When he worked as an organist, J. S. Bach ’s duties included accompanying congregational singing, and he was familiar with the Lutheran hymns. J. S. Bach wrote over 200 church cantatas. And here the complications begin. (BWV 229.2), which is certainly chorale–like (apart from the rather disjunct melodic contour), but which features a melody that is almost certainly composed by Bach himself and, thus, is not taken from the Lutheran chorale tradition. 4) Two settings (BWVs 27.6 and 43.11) that are taken directly from the 1682 Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch (NLGB), an important hymnal of Bach’s day. The word “chorale” can apply to the melodic line alone or the combination of both the melody and text. First, it’s important to clarify that we’re trying to determine the number of extant chorale settings. The Buxtehude Chaconne in e-minor concludes the program. Collections of Chorale-Settings by J. S. Bach; Manuscript collections 149 Chorales (Dittel, 1734-35) 3 Choräle zu Trauungen (1734-38) 135 Chorales (Fasch, 1762) 383 Chorales (1770-89) Published collections 371 Vierstimmige Choralgesänge (1784-87) 319 Mehrstimmige Choralgesänge und geistliche Arien (1850 … Help listening to and downloading MIDI files. Chorales tend to be simple and singable tunes. For the scholar studying the evolution of Bach’s chorale style, all revisions of chorale settings are of primary interest, perhaps warranting the counting of such variants separately. This is particularly true of the four–part second movement from the motet Komm, Jesu, Komm! Bach used these four-part chorales in larger works, such as cantatas or oratorios. Complete Book of Bach Chorales (Archive Edition): Amazon.de: Silverman, Jerry: Fremdsprachige Bücher Wählen Sie Ihre Cookie-Einstellungen Wir verwenden Cookies und ähnliche Tools, um Ihr Einkaufserlebnis zu verbessern, um unsere Dienste anzubieten, um zu verstehen, wie die Kunden unsere Dienste nutzen, damit wir Verbesserungen vornehmen können, und um Werbung anzuzeigen. settings that do not appear in the Dietel) should be approached with a slightly lowered sense of authenticity. Bach’s chorales are strictly choral arrangements of well-known hymn tunes adorned with elaborate harmony; he never composed an original chorale. Luther’s solution lay in the development of German congregational hymns that are known as chorales. BWV 416, to which Riemenschneider 47 corresponds, is the later version. 6) One setting (BWV 262) is a four–part adaptation of a three–part setting by Pachelbel. Lutheran musical worship is structured around - hymns known as -, which are specific to a particular service. St. …  A chorale prelude includes the melody of the chorale, and adds contrapuntal lines. Christmas, the birth of Christ is always the 25 th of December. Hold click (Mac) or right click (Windows) on the blue links below. Bach's Lutheran Heritage Bach's first exposure to these chorales, which blend religious thought with melody, began during the formative years of his development. bach–chorales.com by Luke Dahn. The reasons for Johann Sebastian Bach's attraction to the chorales of Martin Luther are many. 10) Finally, nine settings from Bach’s output may not qualify as chorales in the truest sense of the word. DAY 2: 6 HOURS PASSION – with fervour. To get started, click on one of the categories below, peruse the indexes above, or search for a hymn title or subject: Choral versions of all these chorales may be found on YouTube by searching for the BWV number. The melody of this setting is attributed to Bach and is not from the Lutheran chorale tradition. The typical four-part setting of a chorale, in which the sopranos (and the congregation) sing the melody along with three lower voices, is known as a chorale harmonization. Later composers of the chorale prelude include Johannes Brahms, for example in his Eleven Chorale Preludes, and Max Reger who composed many examples, including Wie schön leucht' uns der Morgenstern (based on the hymn by Philipp Nicolai). First, Dietel included no original texts or background information for each chorale. 7) Two settings (BWV 145a and BWV 272) are attributed to Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in the newly rediscovered Fasch manuscript (SA 818). Over the course of his career, Bach composed 371 four-voiced chorales. To take but one example, several instances of consecutives fifths in Bach’s chorales were "corrected" by Emmanuel or other early editors. The Free Lutheran Chorale-Book is an ongoing project with the goal of making the best of Lutheran hymnody readily and freely available in English to everyone. Composers of tunes for Lutheran hymns, or who adopted such tunes in their compositions: If the chorale is in a cantata, it is usually (but not always) at the very end. The fact that scholars are almost certain that Dietel copied these directly from original manuscripts of large choral works (e.g. 5) One setting (BWV 8.6) is a revision of a chorale setting by Daniel Vetter. DeepBach: a Steerable Model for Bach chorales generation Ga etan Hadjeres 1;2, Fran˘cois Pachet 1 Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Paris 2 LIP6, Universit e Pierre et Marie Curie firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Abstract. Bach in two other early manuscripts, D–Bsa SA 817, Fas. Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works Sorted by Title : This section of the Bach Cantatas Website (BCW) provides a comprehensive list of all the chorale melodies [hereafter referred to simply as ‘CM’s] in Bach’s oeuvre. bach-chorales.com: Extra Information Publication timeline to 1843: Navigation etc. There are 419 Bach chorale settings that have been assigned separate BWV numbers, and there is one additional setting attributed to Bach (see point 9 below) that has not yet been assigned a BWV number. Bach’s great contribution to the Lutheran chorale tradition stems not from his own composing of chorale melodies (less than ten of the 400+ four–part chorales feature melodies that are attributed to Bach himself), but to the great skill and care with which he treated this tradition. Configure your browser to play MIDI fles with a plug-in or external application. For example, for how many Bach chorales do we have original or primary sources? • Bach Chorales are meant to be sung by four part harmony – SATB, originally for Lutheran churches in Germany. J. S. Bach's church cantatas are single-movement works. Attributed to C.P.E. • Melodies should be something easy to sing with a recognisable tune. The Fantasia on Komm, heiliger Geist is a fierce whirlwind: here the task is to convey the breathless agitation of constant sixteenth-note motion, yet present clearly the gestures that define that motion. 18th century Since speculations regarding the number of lost church cantatas vary considerably, it is entirely impossible to know how many Bach chorales have been lost. cantatas, passions, etc.) Okay. See more. David Camwell Review by Heidi Radtke. Chorale definition, a hymn, especially one with strong harmonization: a Bach chorale. [click], we test our workflow on Bach chorales, finding out that our re-trained results are 93.5% accurate, meaning there are 6.5% results that are different from the expert, and among them some of these are still legitimate analyses because there are sometimes multiple correct analyses in chord labeling. 1. Save to your computer. Bach’s known compositions number over 1,100 and cover all musical genres of his day with the exception of opera. So how many extant chorales are there? • These melodies are broken up into phrases, which are identified by pause marks – this is where you put your cadences. Two slightly varied versions of this setting exist. In certain modern usage, this term may include classical settings of such hymns and works of a similar character. All midi files compressed. 2) Two slightly different versions of two chorales from the St. John Passion exist (BWVs 245.3 and 245.5), the first versions of each coming from the premiere performance of the SJP and the later versions coming from a later repeat performance. A setting of "O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid" from the St. Mark Pasticcio is possibly by Bach but has not been assigned a BWV number. 1) Nine duplicates appear within the Schmieder catalogue, six of which constitute instances of Bach reusing a setting for a separate choral work (BWVs 41.6=171.6, 75.7=100.6, 59.3=175.7, 244.15=244.17, 12.7=69a.6, 120a.8=137.5) and three of which resulted from the erroneous assignment of BWV numbers to settings from elsewhere in the Schmieder catalogue (BWVs 253=414; 197a.7=398; 245.5 1st version=416). Bach was a Lutheran—he was “ours,” and we claimed him, though we knew little about him beyond the chorale harmonizations we sang from the Lutheran hymnal. That framework would remain the thread running through his entire compositional life, dominating both his sacred vocal works and much of his organ music. Two slightly varied versions of this setting exist. 67, Volume 2, collection Carus 52.853/00, ISMN M-007-14314-5 36 pages, 23 x 32 cm, paperback available 11,95 € / copy The answer most likely falls somewhere between 390 and 420 depending on how they are counted. The complications occur when considering which of the following settings, all of which are included in the 420, should be eliminated from that total number. . "24 Bach Chorales for Saxophone Quartet by J.S. Below is a table summarizing these settings. This means that 192 chorales in this collection have survived by way of secondary sources and, therefore, should be considered slightly less authentic. These individual chorales have survived by way of two important secondary sources. Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der den Tod... Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der von uns... Christian dance, electronic, and techno artists, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lutheran_chorale&oldid=996935385, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles needing additional references from September 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles to be expanded from October 2017, Articles needing more viewpoints from October 2017, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 07:02. , Luther and his contemporaries referred to these vernacular hymns as geistliche Lieder (spiritual songs), Psalmen (psalms), christliche Lieder (Christian songs), and geistliche (or christliche) Gesänge or Kirchengesänge. contributions to Western music was Bach’s chorale harmonizations. , This article is about a Lutheran music genre. Bach: Leipzig Chorales - Christa Rakich. (S) Oboe (S) Clarinet in B b 1 (S) Clarinet in B b 2 (A) Clarinet in B b 3 (T) 8) Two additional settings (BWV 500a, 1084) come from the St. Mark Passion Pasticcio, the authenticity of which settings is questioned (and which I personally have come to doubt due to divergences from the Bach chorale style), despite the fact that they have been assigned BWV numbers. A chorale is a melody to which a hymn is sung by a congregation in a German Protestant Church service. A secondary problem with this Breitkopf document is the lack of text and contextual information (much like the Dietel). , Johannes Zahn published Die Melodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlieder (the tunes of the German Evangelical hymns) in six volumes from 1889 to 1893. Complete Bach Midi Index. We use the re-trained results as chord labels for our research. Although each chorale contains its own unique characteristics, most chorales are identifiable by some similar musical and textual features. However, two unfortunate facts regarding the Dietel collection remain. 9) A third setting from the St. Mark Passion Pasticcio ("O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid") may very well have been composed by Bach, though it has not yet been assigned a BWV number. The authenticity of this setting from the St. Mark Pasticcio is dubious.
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